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Illinois Criminal Code of 1961

Article 10: Human Trafficking

This section discusses crimes that involve forcing a victim to perform labor without compensation. The first charge, involuntary servitude, applies when a defendant subjects another person to labor by means of physical harm, threats, and other forms of abuse. If extreme in nature, this crime can carry a Class X felony status, the most serious classification in Illinois law.

Another crime described in this section is involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, which can be prosecuted if a defendant recruits or attempts to recruit a minor to engage in commercial sexual activity.

Lastly, the crime of trafficking in persons describes when a defendant has knowingly participated in and benefitted from a business venture that involved involuntary servitude or involuntary sexual servitude of a minor.

All three of these charges are serious, and a conviction carries a heavy risk of substantial prison time.

Need an Illinois criminal defense attorney? If you've been arrested or charged with the crime of human trafficking in Illinois, call our Chicago criminal defense attorneys today at (312) 466-9466 to discuss your case.

The text below comes from Article 10 of the Illinois Criminal Code of 1961. This law may have changed -- please read the important legal disclaimer at the bottom of this page.

Illinois Criminal Code of 1961 - Article 10

Sec. 10-9. Trafficking in persons, involuntary servitude, and related offenses.
    (720 ILCS 5/10-9)

(a) Definitions. In this Section:

(1) "Intimidation" has the meaning prescribed in Section 12-6.

(2) "Commercial sexual activity" means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given, promised to, or received by any person.

(3) "Financial harm" includes intimidation that brings about financial loss, criminal usury, or employment contracts that violate the Frauds Act.

(4) "Forced labor or services" means labor or services that are performed or provided by another person and are obtained or maintained through:

(A) any scheme, plan, or pattern intending to cause or threatening to cause serious harm to any person;

(B) an actor's physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain another person;

(C) an actor's abusing or threatening to abuse the law or legal process;

(D) an actor's knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person;

(E) an actor's blackmail; or (F) an actor's causing or threatening to cause financial harm to or exerting financial control over any person.

(5) "Labor" means work of economic or financial value.

(6) "Maintain" means, in relation to labor or services, to secure continued performance thereof, regardless of any initial agreement on the part of the victim to perform that type of service.

(7) "Obtain" means, in relation to labor or services, to secure performance thereof.

(8) "Services" means activities resulting from a relationship between a person and the actor in which the person performs activities under the supervision of or for the benefit of the actor. Commercial sexual activity and sexually-explicit performances are forms of activities that are "services" under this Section. Nothing in this definition may be construed to legitimize or legalize prostitution.

(9) "Sexually-explicit performance" means a live, recorded, broadcast (including over the Internet), or public act or show intended to arouse or satisfy the sexual desires or appeal to the prurient interests of patrons.

(10) "Trafficking victim" means a person subjected to the practices set forth in subsection (b), (c), or (d).

(b) Involuntary servitude. A person commits the offense of involuntary servitude when he or she knowingly subjects, attempts to subject, or engages in a conspiracy to subject another person to forced labor or services and: (1) causes or threatens to cause physical harm to any person;

(2) physically restrains or threatens to physically restrain another person;

(3) abuses or threatens to abuse the law or legal process;

(4) knowingly destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, or possesses any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person; or

(5) uses intimidation, or uses or threatens to cause financial harm to or exerts financial control over any person.

Sentence. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) or (f), a violation of subsection (b)(1) is a Class X felony, (b)(2) is a Class 1 felony, (b)(3) is a Class 2 felony, (b)(4) is a Class 3 felony, and (b)(5) is a Class 4 felony. (c) Involuntary sexual servitude of a minor. A person commits the offense of involuntary sexual servitude of a minor when he or she knowingly recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means, or attempts to recruit, entice, harbor, provide, or obtain by any means, another person under 18 years of age, knowing that the minor will engage in commercial sexual activity, a sexually-explicit performance, or the production of pornography, or causes or attempts to cause a minor to engage in one or more of those activities and:

(1) there is no overt force or threat and the minor is between the ages of 17 and 18 years;

(2) there is no overt force or threat and the minor is under the age of 17 years; or

(3) there is overt force or threat. Sentence. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) or (f), a violation of subsection (c)(1) is a Class 1 felony, (c)(2) is a Class X felony, and (c)(3) is a Class X felony. (d) Trafficking in persons for forced labor or services.

A person commits the offense of trafficking in persons for forced labor or services when he or she knowingly: (1) recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means, or attempts to recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means, another person, intending or knowing that the person will be subjected to forced labor or services; or (2) benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture that has engaged in an act of involuntary servitude or involuntary sexual servitude of a minor.

Sentence. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) or (f), a violation of this subsection is a Class 1 felony. (e) Aggravating factors. A violation of this Section involving kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated criminal sexual assault or an attempt to commit aggravated criminal sexual assault, or an attempt to commit first degree murder is a Class X felony.

(f) Sentencing considerations. (1) Bodily injury. If, pursuant to a violation of this Section, a victim suffered bodily injury, the defendant may be sentenced to an extended-term sentence under Section 5-8-2 of the Unified Code of Corrections. The sentencing court must take into account the time in which the victim was held in servitude, with increased penalties for cases in which the victim was held for between 180 days and one year, and increased penalties for cases in which the victim was held for more than one year.

(2) Number of victims. In determining sentences within statutory maximums, the sentencing court should take into account the number of victims, and may provide for substantially increased sentences in cases involving more than 10 victims.

(g) Restitution. Restitution is mandatory under this Section. In addition to any other amount of loss identified, the court shall order restitution including the greater of (1) the gross income or value to the defendant of the victim's labor or services or (2) the value of the victim's labor as guaranteed under the Minimum Wage Law and overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or the Minimum Wage Law, whichever is greater.

(h) Trafficking victim services. Subject to the availability of funds, the Department of Human Services may provide or fund emergency services and assistance to individuals who are victims of one or more offenses defined in this Section.

(i) Certification. The Attorney General, a State's Attorney, or any law enforcement official shall certify in writing to the United States Department of Justice or other federal agency, such as the United States Department of Homeland Security, that an investigation or prosecution under this Section has begun and the individual who is a likely victim of a crime described in this Section is willing to cooperate or is cooperating with the investigation to enable the individual, if eligible under federal law, to qualify for an appropriate special immigrant visa and to access available federal benefits. Cooperation with law enforcement shall not be required of victims of a crime described in this Section who are under 18 years of age. This certification shall be made available to the victim and his or her designated legal representative. (j) A person who commits the offense of involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons for forced labor or services under subsection (b), (c), or (d) of this Section shall forfeit to the State of Illinois any profits or proceeds and any interest or property he or she has acquired or maintained in violation of subsection (b), (c), or (d) of this Section that the sentencing court determines, after a forfeiture hearing, to have been acquired or maintained as a result of maintaining a person in involuntary servitude or participating in trafficking in persons for forced labor or services. Upon petition by the Attorney General or State's Attorney at any time following sentencing, the court shall conduct a hearing to determine whether any property or property interest is subject to forfeiture under this Section. At the forfeiture hearing the People have the burden of establishing, by a preponderance of the evidence, that property or property interests are subject to forfeiture under this Section.

In any action brought by the People of the State of Illinois under this Section, in which a restraining order, injunction, or prohibition or any other action in connection with any property or interest subject to forfeiture under this Section is sought, the circuit court presiding over the trial of the person or persons charged with involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons for forced labor or services shall first determine whether there is probable cause to believe that the person or persons so charged have committed the offense of involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons for forced labor or services and whether the property or interest is subject to forfeiture under this Section. In order to make that determination, prior to entering any such order, the court shall conduct a hearing without a jury, in which the People shall establish that there is: (i) probable cause that the person or persons so charged have committed the offense of involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons for forced labor or services and (ii) probable cause that any property or interest may be subject to forfeiture under this Section. The hearing may be conducted simultaneously with a preliminary hearing, if the prosecution is commenced by information or complaint, or by motion of the People, at any stage in the proceedings. The court may accept a finding of probable cause at a preliminary hearing following the filing of an information charging the offense of involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons for forced labor or services or the return of an indictment by a grand jury charging the offense of involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons for forced labor or services as sufficient evidence of probable cause as provided in item (i) of this paragraph. Upon a finding, the circuit court shall enter the restraining order, injunction, or prohibition, or shall take such other action in connection with any such property or other interest subject to forfeiture, as is necessary to ensure that the property is not removed from the jurisdiction of the court, concealed, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of by the owner of that property or interest prior to a forfeiture hearing under this Section. The Attorney General or State's Attorney shall file a certified copy of the restraining order, injunction, or other prohibition with the recorder or registrar of titles of each county where any such property of the defendant may be located. No such injunction, restraining order, or other prohibition shall affect the rights of any bona fide purchaser, mortgagee, judgment creditor, or other lien holder arising prior to the date of that filing. At any time, upon verified petition by the defendant or an innocent owner or innocent bona fide third party lien holder who neither had knowledge of, nor consented to, the illegal act or omission, the court may conduct a hearing to release all or portions of any such property or interest that the court previously determined to be subject to forfeiture or subject to any restraining order, injunction, or prohibition or other action. The court may release that property to the defendant or innocent owner or innocent bona fide third party lien holder who neither had knowledge of nor consented to the illegal act or omission for good cause shown and within the sound discretion of the court.

Upon conviction of a person of involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, or trafficking in persons for forced labor or services, the court shall authorize the Attorney General to seize all property or other interest declared forfeited under this Section upon terms and conditions the court deems proper.

All moneys forfeited and the sale proceeds of all other property forfeited and seized under this Section shall be distributed as follows:

(1) one-half shall be divided equally between all State agencies and units of local government whose officers or employees conducted the investigation that resulted in the forfeiture; and

(2) one-half shall be deposited into the Violent Crime Victims Assistance Fund and targeted to services for victims of the offenses of involuntary servitude, involuntary sexual servitude of a minor, and trafficking in persons for forced labor or services. (Source: P.A. 96-710, eff. 1-1-10.) 720 ILCS 5/Art. 10A

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DISCLAIMER: These excerpts from the law are provided for reference purposes only. Visitors to our Chicago criminal defense lawyer website should be aware that Illinois criminal laws have been amended many times and that Illinois crime laws posted on this site may not be current. In addition, Illinois criminal case law defines precedents for legal determinations that are not defined in the original laws.

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