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Illinois Criminal Code of 1961

Article 10: Other Illinois Crimes Involving Children

In addition to the crime of child abduction, the State may prosecute anyone who commits any of the following child-related crimes, described in Article 10.

Firstly, if a defendant is over the age of 18 and knowingly contacts a child under the age of 15 with intent to abduct him or her without express consent from the parents, he or she can be convicted of the crime of luring a minor.

Several defenses are possible for those facing charges of luring a minor. A defendant cannot be convicted if it is proven that he or she reasonably believed the minor was over the age of 15, or if the minor needed assistance in an emergency situation. Depending on aggravating factors and the age of the defendant, the crime of luring a minor can be classified anywhere from a Class B misdemeanor to a Class 2 felony. To avoid the most serious sentence, a defendant should enlist the assistance of a criminal defense attorney experienced in child abduction crimes.

Next, in Illinois, it is also a crime to violate court orders that determine visitation, parenting time, or child custody. For example, if a father keeps his child longer than the parents legal agreements demand, he can be convicted of this crime. A first conviction is only a petty offense, but repeat offenses can result in a Class A misdemeanor conviction. However, if it can be proven that the defendant committed the act to protect the child from imminent harm, a conviction can be avoided.

The last crime listed in this section is harboring a runaway. If a person gives shelter to a minor without the consent of the childs parents or guardians for more than 48 hours, he or she could face this charge. Any defendant convicted of this crime is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.

Need an Illinois criminal defense attorney? If you've been arrested for a crime involving an offense against a child in Illinois, call our Chicago criminal defense attorneys today at (312) 466-9466 to discuss your case.

The text below comes from Article 10 of the Illinois Criminal Code of 1961. This law may have changed -- please read the important legal disclaimer at the bottom of this page.

Illinois Criminal Code of 1961 - Article 10

Sec. 10-5.1. Luring of a minor.
    (720 ILCS 5/10-5.1)

(a) A person commits the offense of luring of a minor when the offender is 21 years of age or older and knowingly contacts or communicates electronically to the minor: (1) knowing the minor is under 15 years of age; (2) with the intent to persuade, lure or transport the minor away from his or her home, or other location known by the minor's parent or legal guardian to be the place where the minor is to be located;

(3) for an unlawful purpose; (4) without the express consent of the person's parent or legal guardian;

(5) with the intent to avoid the express consent of the person's parent or legal guardian;

(6) after so communicating, commits any act in furtherance of the intent described in clause (a)(2); and

(7) is a stranger to the parents or legal guardian of the minor.

(b) A person commits the offense of luring of a minor when the offender is at least 18 years of age but under 21 years of age and knowingly contacts or communicates electronically to the minor:

(1) knowing the minor is under 15 years of age; (2) with the intent to persuade, lure, or transport the minor away from his or her home or other location known by the minor's parent or legal guardian, to be the place where the minor is to be located;

(3) for an unlawful purpose; (4) without the express consent of the person's parent or legal guardian;

(5) with the intent to avoid the express consent of the person's parent or legal guardian;

(6) after so communicating, commits any act in furtherance of the intent described in clause (b)(2); and

(7) is a stranger to the parents or legal guardian of the minor.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this Section: (1) "Emergency situation" means a situation in which the minor is threatened with imminent bodily harm, emotional harm or psychological harm.

(2) "Express consent" means oral or written permission that is positive, direct, and unequivocal, requiring no inference or implication to supply its meaning.

(3) "Contacts or communicates electronically" includes but is not limited to, any attempt to make contact or communicate telephonically or through the Internet or text messages.

(4) "Luring" shall mean any knowing act to solicit, entice, tempt, or attempt to attract the minor.

(5) "Minor" shall mean any person under the age of 15. (6) "Stranger" shall have its common and ordinary meaning, including but not limited to, a person that is either not known by the parents of the minor or does not have any association with the parents of the minor.

(7) "Unlawful purpose" shall mean any misdemeanor or felony violation of State law or a similar federal or sister state law or local ordinance.

(d) This Section may not be interpreted to criminalize an act or person contacting a minor within the scope and course of his employment, or status as a volunteer of a recognized civic, charitable or youth organization.

(e) This Section is intended to protect minors and to help parents and legal guardians exercise reasonable care, supervision, protection, and control over minor children.

(f) Affirmative defenses. (1) It shall be an affirmative defense to any offense under this Section 10-5.1 that the accused reasonably believed that the minor was over the age of 15.

(2) It shall be an affirmative defense to any offense under this Section 10-5.1 that the accused is assisting the minor in an emergency situation.

(3) It shall not be a defense to the prosecution of any offense under this Section 10-5.1 if the person who is contacted by the offender is posing as a minor and is in actuality an adult law enforcement officer.

(g) Penalties. (1) A first offense of luring of a minor under subsection (a) shall be a Class 4 felony. A person convicted of luring of a minor under subsection (a) shall undergo a sex offender evaluation prior to a sentence being imposed. An offense of luring of a minor under subsection (a) when a person has a prior conviction in Illinois of a sex offense as defined in the Sex Offender Registration Act, or any substantially similar federal, Uniform Code of Military Justice, sister state, or foreign government offense, is guilty of a Class 2 felony.

(2) A first offense of luring of a minor under subsection (b) is a Class B misdemeanor.

(3) A second or subsequent offense of luring of a minor under subsection (a) is a Class 3 felony. A second or subsequent offense of luring of a minor under subsection (b) is a Class 4 felony. A second or subsequent offense when a person has a prior conviction in Illinois of a sex offense as defined in the Sex Offender Registration Act, or any substantially similar federal, Uniform Code of Military Justice, sister state, or foreign government offense, is a Class 1 felony. A defendant convicted a second time of an offense under subsection (a) or (b) shall register as a sexual predator of children pursuant to the Sex Offender Registration Act.

(4) A third or subsequent offense is a Class 1 felony. A third or subsequent offense when a person has a prior conviction in Illinois of a sex offense as defined in the Sex Offender Registration Act, or any substantially similar federal, Uniform Code of Military Justice, sister state, or foreign government offense, is a Class X felony.

(h) For violations of subsection (a), jurisdiction shall be established if the transmission that constitutes the offense either originates in this State or is received in this State and does not apply to emergency situations. For violations of subsection (b), jurisdiction shall be established in any county where the act in furtherance of the commission of the offense is committed, in the county where the minor resides, or in the county where the offender resides. (Source: P.A. 95-625, eff. 6-1-08.)

(Text of Section from P.A. 96-333 and 96-675)
    (720 ILCS 5/10-5.5)

Sec. 10-5.5. Unlawful visitation or parenting time interference.

(a) As used in this Section, the terms "child", "detain", and "lawful custodian" shall have the meanings ascribed to them in Section 10-5 of this Code.

(b) Every person who, in violation of the visitation, parenting time, or custody time provisions of a court order relating to child custody, detains or conceals a child with the intent to deprive another person of his or her rights to visitation, parenting time, or custody time shall be guilty of unlawful visitation or parenting time interference.

(c) A person committing unlawful visitation or parenting time interference is guilty of a petty offense. However, any person violating this Section after 2 prior convictions of unlawful visitation interference or unlawful visitation or parenting time interference is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.

(d) Any law enforcement officer who has probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing an act in violation of this Section shall issue to that person a notice to appear.

(e) The notice shall:

(1) be in writing;

(2) state the name of the person and his address, if known;

(3) set forth the nature of the offense;

(4) be signed by the officer issuing the notice; and

(5) request the person to appear before a court at a certain time and place.

(f) Upon failure of the person to appear, a summons or warrant of arrest may be issued.

(g) It is an affirmative defense that:

(1) a person or lawful custodian committed the act to protect the child from imminent physical harm, provided that the defendant's belief that there was physical harm imminent was reasonable and that the defendant's conduct in withholding visitation rights, parenting time, or custody time was a reasonable response to the harm believed imminent;

(2) the act was committed with the mutual consent of all parties having a right to custody and visitation of the child or parenting time with the child; or

(3) the act was otherwise authorized by law.

(h) A person convicted of unlawful visitation or parenting time interference shall not be subject to a civil contempt citation for the same conduct for violating visitation, parenting time, or custody time provisions of a court order issued under the Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act. (Source: P.A. 96-333, eff. 8-11-09; 96-675, eff. 8-25-09.)

(Text of Section from P.A. 96-710)

Sec. 10-5.5. Unlawful visitation interference.

(a) As used in this Section, the terms "child", "detain", and "lawful custodian" have the meanings ascribed to them in Section 10-5 of this Code.

(b) Every person who, in violation of the visitation provisions of a court order relating to child custody, detains or conceals a child with the intent to deprive another person of his or her rights to visitation commits the offense of unlawful visitation interference.

(c) A person committing unlawful visitation interference is guilty of a petty offense. Any person violating this Section after 2 prior convictions of unlawful visitation interference, however, is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.

(d) Any law enforcement officer who has probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing an act in violation of this Section shall issue to that person a notice to appear.

(e) The notice shall:

(1) be in writing;

(2) state the name of the person and his or her address, if known;

(3) set forth the nature of the offense;

(4) be signed by the officer issuing the notice; and

(5) request the person to appear before a court at a certain time and place.

(f) Upon failure of the person to appear, a summons or warrant of arrest may be issued.

(g) It is an affirmative defense that:

(1) a person or lawful custodian committed the act to protect the child from imminent physical harm, provided that the defendant's belief that there was physical harm imminent was reasonable and that the defendant's conduct in withholding visitation rights was a reasonable response to the harm believed imminent;

(2) the act was committed with the mutual consent of all parties having a right to custody and visitation of the child; or

(3) the act was otherwise authorized by law. (Source: P.A. 96-710, eff. 1-1-10.)

Sec. 10-6. Harboring a runaway.
    (720 ILCS 5/10-6)

(a) Any person, other than an agency or association providing crisis intervention services as defined in Section 3-5 of the Juvenile Court Act of 1987, or an operator of a youth emergency shelter as defined in Section 2.21 of the Child Care Act of 1969, who, without the knowledge and consent of the minor's parent or guardian, knowingly gives shelter to a minor, other than a mature minor who has been emancipated under the Emancipation of Minors Act, for more than 48 hours without the consent of the minor's parent or guardian, and without notifying the local law enforcement authorities of the minor's name and the fact that the minor is being provided shelter commits the offense of harboring a runaway.

(b) Any person who commits the offense of harboring a runaway is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor. (Source: P.A. 95-331, eff. 8-21-07.)

Sec. 10-7. Aiding or abetting child abduction.
    (720 ILCS 5/10-7)

(a) A person violates this Section when, before or during the commission of a child abduction as defined in Section 10-5 and with the intent to promote or facilitate such offense, he or she intentionally aids or abets another in the planning or commission of child abduction, unless before the commission of the offense he or she makes proper effort to prevent the commission of the offense.

(b) Sentence. A person who violates this Section commits a Class 4 felony. (Source: P.A. 96-710, eff. 1-1-10.)

Sec. 10-8. Unlawful sale of a public conveyance travel ticket to a minor.
    (720 ILCS 5/10-8)

(a) A person commits the offense of unlawful sale of a public conveyance travel ticket to a minor when the person sells a ticket for travel on any public conveyance to an unemancipated minor under 17 years of age without the consent of the minor's parents or guardian for passage to a destination outside this state and knows the minor's age or fails to take reasonable measures to ascertain the minor's age.

(b) Evidence. The fact that the defendant demanded, was shown, and reasonably relied upon written evidence of a person's age in any transaction forbidden by this Section is competent evidence, and may be considered in any criminal prosecution for a violation of this Section.

(c) Definition. "Public Conveyance", includes an airplane, boat, bus, railroad, train, taxicab or other vehicle used for the transportation of passengers for hire.

(d) Sentence. Unlawful sale of a public conveyance travel ticket to a minor is a Class C misdemeanor. (Source: P.A. 86-336.)

Sec. 10-8.1. Unlawful sending of a public conveyance travel ticket to a minor.
    (720 ILCS 5/10-8.1)

(a) In this Section, "public conveyance" has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 10-8 of this Code. (b) A person commits the offense of unlawful sending of a public conveyance travel ticket to a minor when the person without the consent of the minor's parent or guardian: (1) knowingly sends, causes to be sent, or purchases a public conveyance travel ticket to any location for a person known by the offender to be an unemancipated minor under 17 years of age or a person he or she believes to be a minor under 17 years of age, other than for a lawful purpose under Illinois law; or

(2) knowingly arranges for travel to any location on any public conveyance for a person known by the offender to be an unemancipated minor under 17 years of age or a person he or she believes to be a minor under 17 years of age, other than for a lawful purpose under Illinois law.

(b-5) Telecommunications carriers, commercial mobile service providers, and providers of information services, including, but not limited to, Internet service providers and hosting service providers, are not liable under this Section, except for willful and wanton misconduct, by virtue of the transmission, storage, or caching of electronic communications or messages of others or by virtue of the provision of other related telecommunications, commercial mobile services, or information services used by others in violation of this Section.

(c) Sentence. Unlawful sending of a public conveyance travel ticket to a minor is a Class A misdemeanor. A person who commits unlawful sending of a public conveyance travel ticket to a minor who believes that he or she is at least 5 years older than the minor is guilty of a Class 4 felony. (Source: P.A. 95-983, eff. 6-1-09.)

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DISCLAIMER: These excerpts from the law are provided for reference purposes only. Visitors to our Chicago criminal defense lawyer website should be aware that Illinois criminal laws have been amended many times and that Illinois crime laws posted on this site may not be current. In addition, Illinois criminal case law defines precedents for legal determinations that are not defined in the original laws.

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